Heraclitus: Exaggeration of Becoming

Heraclitus taught that everything is in a state of flux or constant change: panta rhei. Permanent, immutable substance or Being does not exist, for ultimate reality is always developing or changing. All change means that things are always changing into their opposites, in the process of strife.

Because of this last conclusion, Heraclitus' philosophy could not lead to a science based on describing the world in fixed words or mathematical forms. It led, like the view of Parmenides but for entirely different reasons, to pessimism regarding true knowledge of nature.

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